Mars, a dream that is often heard of, but seems to be out of reach.
However, recently, the first sustainable "Mars City Project" was released , finally making everything seem to have landed.
Abiboo, a global architect firm, worked with an international team of scientists and scholars for several months to design this Martian life plan based on the latest scientific research .
From environment construction, manufacturing, to daily living, it outlines a highly feasible future Mars city picture for us.
A guide to life on Mars: vertical cities, vegetarian food for all employees, paid part-time jobs?
There are five cities in the entire human living space.
Their capital, called "Nüwa" (Nüwa), was inspired by the mother of humanity in Chinese mythology.
The most special place is that it will become a "vertical city."
"Nu Wa" will be made on the edge of the Martian cliff named Tempe Mensa.
Buildings will be placed in the flat cliffs in a patchwork manner. Viewed from a distance, they are like shining caves.
Obviously, this is because the Martian environment is too harsh.
Building a house on a cliff can not only reduce atmospheric pressure, but also protect residents from radiation and meteorites, and can easily get in the sun.
This will include all the buildings that exist on the earth-residential buildings, commercial buildings, green spaces, hospitals, schools, shopping centers, cultural stadiums…
On the vertical cliff, the various buildings will be connected by tunnels, which will pass vertically through huge high-speed elevators.
For horizontal traffic outside the cliff, a light train and bus system will be provided to help people commute to and from work.
All buildings will be modular, divided into residential areas and work areas.
Every building entrance will be equipped with an "air shower", and people who come in need to be cleaned and disinfected to protect their health.
Each module will be equipped with a large transparent dome eaves, which will be a community park for people, where various entertainment and leisure activities can be carried out, and various new plants can be cultivated at the same time.
At the foot of the cliff, many translucent pavilions will be built here, and people can also gather with friends here and take a look at the spectacular view of Mars.
[Vegetarian for all members]
In the valley, there will be an animal husbandry area where pigs, chickens, fish and other animals can be raised, but they only account for 10% of the human diet.
Because the efficiency of producing animals here is very low, these animals mainly provide "psychological value."
Simply put, the value of animals being seen is greater than the value of being eaten.
90% of the food will come from plants, crops will account for 50%, and algae will become an important part of the Martian diet.
Reduce meat eating, protect the planet, and "start from the baby."
Go to the highest point of the cliff, here is a vast plain that can be fully illuminated by the sun.
Therefore, it will be used for the production of crops, as well as for the construction of power plants, as well as various factories for the production of food and infrastructure.
In addition, the energy needed for human life will come from solar panels, a large number of plants will provide enough oxygen, and there are a lot of carbon dioxide and water on Mars, which can produce enough carbon. With carbon, various construction materials can be processed and produced. Robots will also play their fist here.
Abiboo said that initially the city relied on the earth's capital investment and resource supply, but soon, the city will fully utilize the resources of Mars for self-sufficiency and sustainable development.
In addition to the capital "Nuwa", there are 4 more cities in the Mars project.
They will be scattered within 5 kilometers. They are Abalos, Marineris, Ascraeus, and Fuxi. These cities will increase humanity. The mobile space of residence can also allocate resources to each other.
For example, Nuwa is located in a place with sufficient water sources, Abalos is located at the north pole of Mars where ice can be obtained on the spot, Marinalis is located in the solar system's largest canyon plain, which is conducive to planting crops and so on.
[Paid part-time job]
The city of "Nuwa" will be able to accommodate 250,000 people, and the per capita living space is about 25-35 square meters. Expanding to other cities, it can reach as high as 1 million people.
The plan estimates that these cities will begin construction in 2054 and be completed in 2100.
Therefore, those who read this article will still be able to see its true face in their lifetime.
▲ Work area
As for how to get to these cities, Abiboo said that it will open a trip every 26 months, because every two years, Mars will be the closest to the earth for a few weeks, and it only takes 1-3 months to travel between the two.
But the one-way fare is not cheap, about 300,000 US dollars at a time.
But people on Mars can't be idle either. They can fully enjoy the public facilities, living services, and daily food here. At the same time, they have to sign a work contract, and they have to complete the tasks assigned for urban development.
Are you moving to work on Mars?
Those earth teams rushing to "Mars City"
An Abiboo spokesperson said that all the projects they mentioned have undergone sufficient scientific research and are technically feasible.
But Abiboo is not the only one who wants to build a city on Mars.
The United States' NASA, SpaceX, China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, and the United Arab Emirates have all set their sights on Mars in recent years.
▲ The NASA Perseverance Mars probe enters the Martian atmosphere. Picture from: NASA/AFP
After SpaceX founder Musk saw the news of Abiboo, he immediately changed his words and said that they don't have to wait until 2054, after launching an interstellar spacecraft before 2030, to build Mars City.
Previously, he had planned to send 1 million people to Mars in 2050 and build a fleet of 1,000 starships to colonize Mars and build Mars Base Alpha.
▲ Picture from: SpaceX
But 2030 is really imminent.
Musk's confidence to speak lies in the rapid development of Starship , which is the most manned interstellar spacecraft in history. Recently, SN11 will be launched at high altitude. In the future, they will carry a large amount of materials to space.
Musk said before that at least 1 million tons of earth resources are needed to be transported in order to build the Alpha Mars base.
After all the supplies are shipped, Musk can also build a small town that is supplied by the earth before about 2050.
Although it will take time to develop into a city, it is still a lot earlier than Abiboo's plan.
In 2017, the UAE also entered a new era of the "space race". They announced that they would cooperate with NASA to build the first city on Mars in 2117.
Prior to this, the UAE has cooperated with the architecture studio Bjarke Ingels Group to represent the Dubai government in the desert area outside Dubai to build the world's largest Mars technology city (1.9 million square feet) as a simulation space for the development of Mars migration technology.
Although the UAE only established a space agency in 2014 and there is not much practice in Mars exploration, the construction time of the city in 2117 still sounds a bit more realistic than the previous two.
NASA has not yet clearly launched a detailed Mars City plan. Instead, it hosted a Mars Architecture Competition in 2019. They invited designers from all over the world to participate and plan the Martian habitat together.
▲ The winner of the competition is AI SpaceFactory, a New York architect firm. They designed a multi-story cylindrical building. The outer layer protects humans from the harsh environment. The inner layer is a space for human activities. Each floor has different functional rooms. , Like a large paradise.
However, NASA has spared no effort on the journey of mankind to Mars.
In order to land on Mars, they have been preparing for more than 70 years, from manufacturing a Mars rover, to studying Mars samples, from manufacturing a Mars simulation base, to establishing the latest Mars planting system…
In 1966, NASA launched the human landing plan on Mars. Among the global series of Mars launch probe projects, NASA has the highest launch success rate. They hope to take humans to Mars for about the same time as SpaceX, before 2035.
Now, the speed of humans visiting Mars is getting faster and faster. Last year, there were three "Mars rover" trips around the world.
In addition to NASA's "Perseverance" rover, there are also the UAE's first Mars rover "Hope", and China's "Tianwen-1" launched on July 23.
"Tianwen 1" launched China's autonomous Mars exploration mission for the first time , and it has once again set off a wave of people's attention to Mars.
On the 18th of last month, NASA’s "Perseverance" rover successfully landed on the Martian ground.
We are getting closer and closer to Mars.
Survival or destruction on Mars is a question
From Mars exploration, to Mars travel, to Mars building a city, although everything is not in sight, it is only a matter of time before it is within reach.
However, living on Mars still has too many problems to be solved, and this trip to Mars is likely to be unresolved.
On this red planet, which is dominated by carbon dioxide and colder than Antarctica, we have to face countless difficulties.
▲ Picture from: Forbes
[Long space flight]
First of all, with current technology, it takes at least 9 months for manned missions to reach Mars, and astronauts can only stay at most about 6 months each time they go to the International Space Station.
Long-term confined space, coupled with delayed communication, will soon be enveloped in loneliness and helplessness. Astronauts with strong mentality are also prone to mild to moderate depression, abnormal sleep cycles, and even mental problems.
In order to solve the time issue, NASA announced last month that they will develop nuclear-powered engines that will be powered by nuclear fission or nuclear fusion, allowing the spacecraft to run at high speeds, reducing the one-way time to Mars to 90 days.
However, as Jeffrey Johnson, an anthropologist at the University of Florida, said, "comedians" are still needed in the journey to Mars.
[Strong space radiation]
Whether it is on the road to Mars or after arriving on Mars, radiation from space will pose a serious threat to our bodies.
Because the earth has a magnetic field and atmosphere, it protects us from radiation attacks, and an astronaut on a mission to Mars receives 700 times the radiation dose of the earth.
Under the thin atmosphere of Mars and long-term exposure to radiation, humans will also increase the risk of cancer, damage to the brain, heart and central nervous system…
▲ Picture from: Flipboard
National space agencies are studying how to reduce radiation damage to astronauts, but so far there is no best popularization plan.
Scientist Raymond E. Arvidson puts forward an interesting suggestion that friends who are going to Mars can start eating more broccoli now-anti-radiation.
[Extreme Martian environment]
After arriving on Mars, low temperature, oxygen-free, and low-gravity environments are the biggest challenges.
Low temperature cannot go out, anaerobic is difficult to breathe, low gravity will weaken the bones, heart, immune system, cause muscle atrophy, visual perception changes and other problems, and even make humans unable to reproduce.
To this end, Musk said a year ago an amazing plan to drop a nuclear bomb on Mars -he hopes that nuclear weapons can release carbon dioxide locked in the Martian ice layer, thereby increasing the density of the Martian atmosphere, and finally aggravating the climate change on Mars, making Mars change. It's more livable.
But scientists say that even nuclear bombs cannot make the atmosphere sufficient to support human survival.
After that, Musk said that thousands of satellites equipped with solar reflectors could be used as artificial suns to heat Mars, but these are just ideas and no scientific research support.
Abiboo's plan can also avoid radiation and use plants to solve the oxygen problem. This is indeed feasible. After all, it is the algae plants that made the oxygen-free earth produce oxygen 3 billion years ago.
But how to make Mars warm up, how to solve only one-third of the earth's gravity, there is still no good solution .
[Unsustainable life on Mars]
The lives of the first people to go to Mars are likely to be miserable.
▲ Picture from: Julien Mauve
They have to live in confined underground bases for a long time, get rid of the psychological distress of claustrophobia, and are out of touch with the vibrant nature, and even the access to basic resources such as food and water is very limited.
It will take a long, long time to complete the Mars plan like Abiboo and establish stable and sustainable resources.
Take the plants we eat, they need to stay away from radiation, away from toxic soils, and high-risk chemicals. NASA and "The Martian" have both proposed the idea of planting potatoes on Mars. For this kind of carbon dioxide-loving plant, it can indeed live on Mars. Increase the yield by two to four times, but first of all, can we produce safe and edible potatoes?
▲ Picture from: "The Martian"
Whether it is a 3D printed Martian building or other high-tech manufacturing houses, a lot of economic costs are required.
Musk estimates that the final cost of establishing a Martian city is between US$100 billion and US$10 trillion.
There is no project on Earth that burns more money than exploring outer space. This requires people from the private sector, public sector, different places and different cultures to participate and contribute.
Even if everything is perfectly constructed, humans must undergo permanent genetic adjustments in order to adapt to the Martian environment. From muscles, bones, and brains, they are all in order to live on Mars for a long time, and finally become a brand new human species.
▲ Picture from: Julien Mauve
In general, everything is currently only a feasible plan.
However, in the future, humans may be "machined." All human-based restrictions may no longer be obstacles. Many obstacles have not yet been resolved, but they are all on the way.
Those adventurers in outer space really let us see the courage of human beings to surpass themselves.
But what must be known is that although the earth is facing countless problems now, it is almost effortless to transform the earth compared to transforming Mars.
Mars is working hard to become a new earth. I hope that during this long journey of exploration, we will not let the earth become the old Mars.
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