When concepts such as black holes, AI, robots, and the Big Bang were overused by science fiction films, Quantum succeeded in becoming the current sci-fi rookie. The newly released sci-fi films do not include the "quantum concept" and are embarrassed to issue movie trailers.
Quantum is like an all-purpose curry paste when cooking. Just add it to the movie and the flavor of science fiction will come. Traveling through time and space is too old-fashioned, and adding quantum entanglement will become advanced and avant-garde; nanoparticles are tired of hearing, and the name of the nanoparticle is unpredictable.
For a while, it seems that you can't tell the unknown things, as long as you add a quantum prefix, everything makes sense, and the audience is also trained to become a quantum physicist for a time, and can comment on quantum mechanics casually.
Jumping out of the movie and returning to reality, how long will it take for us to really get in touch with quantum products?
Recently, China Telecom officially announced that it has launched the industry's first quantum secure communication product "Quantum Secret Talk", which has been successfully tested in Anhui, and Guangdong and Shanghai will soon open the pilot program.
Will "Quantum Secret Talk" be our first contact with quantum technology?
Quantum secrets are safe, but not so mythical
Since the ridiculous "Quantum Speed Reading" media was exposed, the public's favor for the promotion of quantum prefixes has plummeted.
▲ I don’t know why glasses are always favored by the concept of “IQ tax”
There is no other reason. Quantum has officially added infrared, magnetic therapy, nanometer, graphene and other MLM flicker vocabularies, such as "a pair of magnetic therapy glasses made of nanographene, which uses quantum fluctuations to generate infrared radiation to treat myopia. "Does it have an internal taste?
To distinguish whether the quantum secrets that China Telecom launched this time is black technology or pseudoscience, we must first have a general concept of quantum, quantum cryptography, and quantum communication. Although the concept of quantum is well known, most non-professionals The concept of quantum still remains in a superficial impression.
First, we must clarify a concept. Quantum is not a thing, nor is it the name of a certain kind of microscopic particle, but a state.
The transmission of energy is discontinuous, like a Rubik's Cube composed of countless small squares. When these small energy squares are divided to be no smaller, then it is quantized, such as the light quanta in the beam.
In this microscopic state, the properties of matter will exceed our normal understanding, such as superposition, entanglement, and indeterminate and unobservable properties. Using these physical characteristics can generate a completely random and secure key for communication.
The use of quantum state matter as a carrier to transmit information is quantum communication. Quantum communication includes processes such as signal preparation, coding, modulation, and transmission through the quantum state at the transmitting end, propagation through optical fibers or free space channels, and quantum state detection, demodulation and decoding at the receiving end.
After understanding these "preliminary synopses", we can better understand the quantum secure communication service (quantum secret communication) launched by China Telecom. First, we will draw a conclusion: this quantum secret talk is not equal to another quantum communication, and the quantum secret talk is even better. Like a simplified version of quantum communication.
But don’t rush to label quantum secret words "IQ tax". It is still closely related to quantum encryption, and it is indeed a safer communication method. To understand this, we must first start with quantum secret words Speaking of the principle.
Quantum secure call service can be understood in two parts, "secure call + quantum key".
That is to say, it still transmits after encrypting the voice information during the call, and the encryption method is through the quantum key, so as to realize the function of preventing leakage of the call content.
Taking an example in life as an example, if we want to send a sentence of Love to an object but do not want to be peeked, then this sentence will go through such an encryption process:
Love (plain text) → transmission key encryption (alphabet plus one) → Mpwf (cryptographic transmission) → receiving key analysis (alphabet minus one) → Love (change back to plain text)
This process is also the principle of cryptography, and the encryption method mentioned in it-the key is the focus of quantum encryption.
What is the significance of quantum keys?
The digital key we traditionally use is a mathematical problem generated by complex mathematical methods. To solve it, you need to use an exhaustive method to enter the answer again and again to calculate. This calculation process may take thousands of years on ordinary computers. Therefore, we It will feel safe enough.
But this is for traditional computers that convert one-way calculations between 0 and 1, complex mathematical problems may be easily broken by quantum computers that can perform parallel calculations.
The characteristic of quantum keys lies in their randomness. The key generation is given to physical mechanisms rather than mathematical algorithms, and its security is strictly mathematically proven.
The characteristic of the quantum key is that it is encoded in the quantum state of the photon. According to the quantum unclonable theorem, the quantum of a position cannot be accurately copied, and once measured, it will be destroyed. Therefore, the security of the quantum key is fully guaranteed. Sex.
The reason why "quantum secret talk" is not quantum communication is that the information transmitted in the communication process is still transmitted in the form of electric waves rather than quantum carriers. Quantum encryption uses a quantum generated random number as a key on the SIM card on the terminal side and the central server to achieve more secure communication encryption or authentication.
According to a demonstration by China Telecom, its service is based on a SIM card pre-filled with a quantum security key. Before making a secure call, you need to download an app called "Tianyi Quantum".
When using quantum secure calls, the user dials to trigger the authentication process, using the quantum key pre-filled by the SIM card for authentication, and at the same time obtaining the quantum key from the quantum key distribution network in real time, encrypting the call, and the quantum key for each call Throw it when you use it up to achieve "one use at a time".
In layman's terms, a secure SIM card is like a piece of more advanced random number security hardware than USB. Its random number is generated in the form of physics rather than arithmetic, thus ensuring the security of call information.
It should be noted that "Quantum Secret Talk" can only be used on Android phones at present, and there are no special requirements for mobile phone hardware. To build a quantum secure call, both parties need to enable the quantum security service function.
Is it necessary to use quantum technology for communication encryption?
Before 700 AD, the Spartans developed an ingenious way of transmitting information confidentially:
Wrap a strip of paper or cloth around a wooden stick, and write the secret information on it. When the strip of paper is removed from the stick, the text on it becomes a disorganized character. Only by wrapping it around the stick can the information inside be interpreted.
This round wooden stick, called Scytale, may be the earliest text encryption and decryption tool used by humans.
When the notes of our communication have turned into radio wave characters flying in the air, we still need a safer "round stick" to protect our privacy and secrets.
In 2013, German Chancellor Merkel was deeply involved in the wiretapping incident. According to reports, Merkel's mobile phone has been continuously monitored by US intelligence organizations for 12 years. Everything she talked about on her private mobile phone was heard clearly by the other side of the ocean. , This has sounded a safety alarm for people all over the world.
In order to ensure the security of communication, many mobile phone manufacturers have made a lot of hardware and software efforts, among which BlackBerry is destined to be an inevitable mobile phone brand.
Once BlackBerry was to mobile phones what Volvo was to cars, and safety is synonymous with them. The only difference is that Volvo is still living well in the automotive industry. BlackBerry has now transformed into a network security service provider.
People now miss the BlackBerry. In addition to the typing feel brought by the full keyboard, they also miss the security it brings. When BlackBerry's BES service carries out message transmission, the data is encrypted by AES-256 bit or 3DES, then compressed and packaged and sent to the base station.
After multiple encryptions, even if the data is intercepted and eavesdropped, because the BlackBerry uses fragmented transmission, the eavesdropper will only get a piece of scrambled code.
The 8848 mobile phone advertised by Baping TV also used communication security as an important selling point of its own mobile phone, claiming that it can hide the phone number, hide the call history and encrypt and prevent eavesdropping.
According to 8848's explanation, the current phone monitoring is active monitoring, that is, tracking is performed based on the call number. However, the 8848 mobile phone re-encodes the main phone number through the transfer station during the encrypted call, so it cannot be identified, monitored, or tracked. call records.
However, there are feedback from users that this method of hiding numbers can bypass the interception of mobile phone blacklists, which conflicts with the requirements of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology for the real-name system of telecommunications. On December 10, 2020, 8848 officially shut down the "encrypted call" function.
The purpose of mobile phone manufacturers trying to strengthen communication security is still because our seemingly safe communication network still has some loopholes, giving eavesdroppers an opportunity.
The traditional 2G, 3G, and 4G authentication schemes essentially label the key based on the identity index with the user identity information.
In the face of wireless access attacks against tampering and counterfeiting of information content with wireless signals as carriers, as well as wireless access attacks in the form of forwarding and replaying, once the root key is leaked, the authentication parameters will become invalid, and the process of eavesdropping authentication can be pushed Derive subsequent protection keys, threatening network security.
The addition of quantum keys, which cannot be copied and changed dynamically, is like adding a physical lock to network authentication.
In 2020, Samsung launched a mobile phone called Galaxy A Quantum that uses quantum encryption, which is only available in South Korea. The mobile phone has a built-in quantum random number chip, the purpose is also to better protect the security of the call.
Compared with Samsung's mobile phones, China Telecom's "quantum secret call" allows us to experience more advanced security encryption methods at a lower cost (no need to change mobile phones).
It is not necessarily suitable for the general public, but for some government and business people who are involved in strict confidentiality, an additional layer of encrypted calls will undoubtedly mean that the risk of leakage can be effectively reduced.
How far is quantum technology from our lives
People will instinctively choose to resist things that are invisible and intangible. Just as it seems that many things have become common sense now, there are still some people who do not believe that the earth is spherical.
Everyone knows the existence of the concept of quantum, but few people understand its principle, and it is harder to feel the actual improvement it brings in life.
And people have been deceived by the concept of "pseudoscience" too many times. All kinds of fake and inferior products try to use these cutting-edge scientific vocabulary to exaggerate their publicity, and their actual inferior product experience will ruin people's goodwill for emerging technologies, even though they "Not relevant."
The resistance caused by this distrustful attitude will be a major obstacle for quantum technology to enter the civilian market.
At present, there are only three kinds of quantum technologies that we can buy on the market, quantum concept stocks, quantum mechanics textbooks, and quantum encryption devices. The rest of the products are a proper IQ tax regardless of whether they are readable or not.
On the other hand, the application of quantum technology is still at a very preliminary stage. Our current application of quantum technology is just like Wright’s building airplanes. It is still at the stage of “knowing that airplanes can fly”. We want ordinary people to experience “ There is still a long way to go for a service like "international flight".
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