California's first governor, Leland Stanford, gave birth to Stanford University, which in turn gave birth to Silicon Valley.
Today, Stanford University and Silicon Valley are still concrete representatives of "intelligence".
But many people may not have imagined that, for a period of time, Leland Stanford, who was passed down by later generations, and the Stanford University he founded, would be associated with "anti-intellectualism".
Leland Stanford, who was born in New York, was very disappointed with the education at Eastern University, believing that these universities were producing useless scholars. Leland Stanford hoped that the university he founded would overcome the educational problems of Eastern University through "practical rather than theoretical education."
In the book "Anti-Intellectualism in American Life" published in the 1960s, Leland Stanford's style was criticized by the author as "anti-intellectualism" to a certain extent, those classical, traditional, and Western literature. A theoretical course closely linked to the philosophy of art, considered by the author as a respected mode of intellectual training, that is, true intellect.
As for the practical engineering education at Stanford University at the time, or the business courses at the Wharton School of Business, the author of this book, who is also a professor at Columbia University, historian Richard Hofstadter sees it as inelegant to wait. Not smart enough.
How did Apple CEO Cook become the prototype of the villain?
Perhaps, the current Apple CEO Cook, who has a bachelor's degree in industrial engineering and a master's degree in business administration, will be considered by the late Richard Hofstadter to have no real intelligence, even if he is in charge of the most valuable company on the planet.
Perhaps, Cook himself did not expect that not only may he be evaluated as unintellectual, but in two consecutive American movies, the villains are based on him as the prototype.
In the movie "Don't Look Up", which satirizes everything, everyone is a fool The president of the style, the other is a top entrepreneur with Cook's appearance and behavior, a Zuckerberg-style big data monitoring business, and Musk's space program.
▲ On the right is Lewis Dodgson, the villain in Jurassic World 3
During the premiere of "Jurassic World 3", several colleagues didn't know whether it was because they couldn't bear the boring plot, or whether they were really unhappy, and they complained in several groups: How is this villain entrepreneur so similar to Cook, How can this villain's nest be exactly the same as Apple Park, Apple's headquarters?
The reason why everyone has such doubts is mainly because in terms of corporate ethics, Apple is regarded as the best group in the world; as for Cook, its external image has always been stable and mediocre, and has a strong personal style. Jobs or Musk Very different.
▲ The left is a netizen imitating the drawing, and the right is "Time" magazine
A person who has no moral flaws to the outside world has become the prototype of the villains of the two movies, probably because of his labelled identity: the head of the most valuable technology company.
▲ The villain's nest is similar to Apple's new headquarters, Apple Park
This is similar to "every man is innocent of guilt". Even if Zuckerberg, the founder of Facebook, whose reputation has collapsed in the United States, is more suitable to be a movie villain, but probably he and his company are not rich enough recently, not enough Arousing hatred for the rich, so the villain prototype can only find the company with the highest market value, or Cook's moderate and kind image is more suitable to be the target of bullying.
At least Zuckerberg personally expressed dissatisfaction when facing the "uglification" of him by "The Social Network".
Just imagine, if the archetype of the villain is Musk, then the Silicon Valley Iron Man with tens of millions of fans climbs high, and maybe "Jurassic World 3" is half cold.
In the United States, giant technology companies and entrepreneurs have been bound to capitalism, from the admirable progressive force in reality to the typical villain that everyone shouts in the movie. All these changes have been less than 10 years old. .
In the movie, evil entrepreneurs dare to force scientists to conduct experiments that are illogical and illogical for their own selfish interests, and ultimately lead to the danger of human extinction. The reason for this projection is that there are still a lot of people in reality, because they are afraid of AI, robots, biotechnology, space exploration, etc., hostile to technological progress, and hostile to companies and entrepreneurs.
Worse than Cook is the former richest man Gates
Compared with the real experience of the former richest man in the world, Microsoft founder Bill Gates, perhaps Cook is relatively lucky to only become a labelled villain prototype in the movie. After all, the former is experiencing a protracted and overwhelming amount of online violence and slander.
In Chinese perception, after Bill Gates no longer served as CEO of Microsoft, he devoted himself to philanthropy, dedicated to researching and solving AIDS and malaria problems, especially improving the health situation in Africa, and he also cared about inequality and climate change .
When the new crown epidemic was raging, Gates made donations on the one hand, and on the other hand called for global cooperation to strengthen investment in new crown diagnosis, vaccine and treatment tools, and improve health early warning systems to support low- and middle-income countries.
It can be said that in the fight against the new crown, Gates has always adhered to a scientific and rational attitude, as well as the generosity of philanthropists.
▲ A large number of people in the United States are against Bill Gates
However, in the American public opinion field, Gates has instead become a "devil" and "the initiator of the new crown" in many populations, especially after his extramarital affairs were exposed, his personal reputation declined a lot.
Because many years ago, Gates mentioned in a public speech: If there is anything that can kill more than 10 million people in the next few decades, it is likely to be a highly contagious virus, not war.
Then in 2019, the Gates Foundation organized a seminar, which convened health experts from more than a dozen countries around the world to deduce a global pandemic simulation called a novel zoonotic coronavirus (CAPS):
The virus was first transmitted from bats to pigs, then to humans, and eventually mutated to be transmissible from person to person, leading to a severe epidemic. It only takes 6 months for the virus to spread globally. Due to the spread of the epidemic, travel between countries has been suspended and border controls have been implemented, and the tourism booking rate has decreased by 45%; the spread of false information and false news on social networks has triggered the spread of panic; at the same time, the epidemic will trigger a global financial crisis. Stock markets around the world plummeted by 20% to 40%.
Originally, the behavior of Gates and the Gates Foundation was prediction and early warning, but because the prediction was too accurate, it was suspected by a considerable number of Americans: Your prediction is so accurate, is that what you did?
In turn, this anti-intellectual logic has developed into a conspiracy theory that Gates is executing a "human elimination plan".
▲ Rumors about Gates' evil plans
Because Gates hopes to improve the health conditions and vaccination rates in Africa, to help improve the survival rate of children in Africa and reduce the fertility rate, that is, the logic of fewer births and better births, and then reduce the living burden of African people and promote economic development.
This logic is slightly complicated, and reducing the fertility rate will lead to a decrease in the number of births, so many people simplify the logic to: Gates promotes vaccination precisely to eliminate the population and implement the "Human Elimination Plan".
At the same time, the secondary anti-intellectual rumors are also like carps crossing the river, and form a logical closed loop: vaccines have always been Gates' weapons of enslaving and maiming human beings. When the new crown is a pandemic, people will have to get vaccinated, and the vaccine has a cover. The chip implanted by him must be controlled by Gates when the chip enters the human body. In this way, Gates is more motivated to create and spread the new crown virus.
In the United States, anti-vaccine is a banner of anti-intellectualism. It is the so-called good combatant who has no great achievements. Because of vaccination, the infectious disease such as smallpox has been eliminated, polio has almost disappeared, and infectious diseases such as whooping cough and diphtheria have been eliminated because of vaccines. No longer scary. But many people fail to see the role of vaccines behind the extinction and dormancy of infectious diseases, and think that there are no such diseases in the world, and the existence of vaccines has ulterior motives.
This is similar to the story Luo Yonghao told before: the district he lived in had insufficient heating and it was very cold in winter, so he went to fight for the right to adequate heating, but people in the same district did not understand that he was making trouble without reason, and the heating would be too much. Dress up. In the end, the community property and heating company couldn't stand the fight of Luo Yonghao's group, and they were fully heated. Then the group of people who said that Luo Yonghao was unreasonable and vexatious changed their minds and said, "Let's just say, the heating is not good, why are you making trouble for others?"
▲ Owen (left) insists on the flat earth theory
Not only is it anti-vaccine, in the United States, there are still a considerable part of the population who do not agree with the theory of evolution, and also insist on the flat earth theory. One of the most well-known supporters of the Flat Earth theory should be Owen, who is called "Ou Shenxian" by Chinese fans.
Whether it's high-level "intellect" or obscure "science", and "skills" that need to be learned, it means that they are not easy to understand and accept. On the contrary, the logic that can be understood at a glance, and the simple attribution that is infallible, can best allow anti-intellectual people to accept the chaos of their own brains. After all, if it weren't for the mathematical calculations of the ancient Greek philosopher Eratosthenes and Magellan's circumnavigation to prove that the earth is round, the earth's flatness is actually more in line with human intuition.
Similarly, in a popcorn movie with only 2 hours, if you want to establish a big villain, you can almost only make simple attribution and choose the object of labeling: if the evil entrepreneur who wants to destroy human beings through biotechnology in reality is Gates, the entrepreneur in the movie who wants to use biotechnology for personal gain and mutilate human beings, can be Cook.
Thematic Variations of Anti-Intellectual Arguments
Although Richard Hofstadter, who wrote "Anti-Intellectualism in American Life," could not accurately predict the current state of anti-intellectualism in the United States, he also mentioned that there will be "thematic variations" in anti-intellectual rhetoric.
Now, anti-intellectual people just sneer at those classical and elegant traditional wisdom and ignore them, and the new anti-intellectual objects have become science and technology, as well as enterprises and entrepreneurs who rely on scientific and technological progress to achieve business success.
Simply put, anti-intellectualism has experienced a consumption downgrade.
As mentioned at the beginning, Stanford University, the representative of modern intelligence, was once considered to have some anti-intellectualism, and the wisdom here mainly refers to the ideological level. The reason may also be the respect for the tradition and the prudence for the future by the history professors of the East Coast University in the United States.
For example, Jill Lepore, a professor of history at Harvard University, recently wrote an article criticizing Musk, saying that he represents the crazy, extravagant, and unrealistic "tech man" who is exploring aliens, humans, and virtual worlds under the banner of making money. Capitalism, or Muskism.
And Musk happens to be a Stanford student. Like many Silicon Valley bigwigs, he also chose to drop out of school to start a business.
It can be seen that these history professors have been criticizing technology and business for decades, but popular anti-intellectualism has undergone "thematic variation", that is, de-escalation. Sixty years ago, Richard Hofstadter cites a variation on farmers' resistance to agricultural technology, even if it can help farmers increase production and income. But the peasant group will not despise Michelangelo's frescoes or Voltaire's ideas, after all, they don't meet very often.
Now, the same is true for the red necks of the Rust State, Michelangelo and Voltaire are too far away, but the rich representatives Cook and Gates are close at hand, through Windows computers or iPhones, on Facebook and Twitter, red Necks can easily see their movements, as well as rumors about them, and believe them.
▲ The decaying industry of the American Rust State
Interestingly, most of these devices, these software, come from technology companies on the West Coast of the United States. It is precisely the development of these technology companies and the process of globalization in the same period that have been synchronized with the gradual decline of steel, automobile, chemical, mining and other industries in the US Midwest and the Rusty states of the Great Lakes. Therefore, the anti-intellectual group once again makes a simple attribution. , then the two beneficiaries in this process naturally become the targets of the losers.
In Anti-Intellectualism in American Life, the author attributes part of the anti-intellectualism of the 1960s to the ultra-conservative ideological McCarthyism at the time. When we look back at this wave of anti-intellectualism against American entrepreneurs In intellectualism, the time coincides with that of the last president of the United States, and many people call his thinking the new McCarthyism.
The similarities of history have been confirmed again, but perhaps the similarities of anti-intellectualism exist not only in these two histories of the United States, but also in more parts of the earth.
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